Binding of metabolites of cyclophosphamide to DNA in a rat liver microsomal system and in vivo in mice

K Hemminki
1985 Cancer Research  
The stability of phosphoramide mustard, a metabolite of cyclophosphamide was studied at pH 7.2 and 37 degrees C using 31P nuclear magnetic resonance. The phosphorus signal of phosphoramide mustard disappeared with a half-life of 8 min indicating rapid conversion to other species. The final product, inorganic phosphate, appeared with a half-life of 105 min indicating that phosphoramide mustard was easily dephosphoramidated. A rat liver microsomal system was used to study the binding of
more » ... yl-3H]cyclophosphamide to DNA. DNA was hydrolyzed in 0.1 N HCl:0.5 N NaCl at 80 degrees C for 20 min, conditions known to convert phosphoramide mustard to nornitrogen mustard with liberation of the phosphoramide residue. After such treatment three adducts were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography using several elution systems. They were all 7-substituted guanine adducts of nornitrogen mustard; two were monoalkylation products with an intact [N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-[2-(7-guaninyl)ethyl]amine] or an hydroxylated mustard arm [N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-N-[2-(7-guaninyl)ethyl]amine]; the third adduct was a cross-linked product [N,N-bis [2-(7-guaninyl)ethyl]-amine]. The relative abundance of these adducts depended on the length of the microsomal incubation. After 2 h, N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-[2-(guaninyl)ethyl]amine was the main product but after 6 h N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-N-[2-(7-guaninyl)ethyl]amine was most abundant, and at this time the cross-linked product represented 12% of the total adducts. The adducts in DNA depurinated readily and after 24 h at pH 7.0 and 37 degrees C 70% of them had been liberated. The rate of depurination was decreased in the presence of 0.5 N NaCl. After short-term depurination in 0.1 N HCl at 25 degrees C the primary alkylating species was phosphoramide mustard rather than nornitrogen mustard. In in vivo studies mice were given injections i.p. of 100 microCi of cyclophosphamide. Maximal levels of radioactivity had been incorporated into DNA between 2-7 h after injection; the specific activity of DNA from the kidney and lung exceeded that from the liver. While the level of radioactivity found in kidney DNA was rapidly reduced the rate of fall was lower in the lung. Between 24 and 72 h the specific activity of lung DNA exceeded that of kidney and liver DNA by a factor of 3:8. Lung is the principal target tissue for tumor formation in mice after an i.p. injection.
pmid:4028012 fatcat:prdmnoqgyjavbcbtrymbr5cxwi