Marco Moreira, Cedric Pobel, Nicolas Epaillard, Audrey Simonaggio, Stéphane Oudard, Yann-Alexandre Vano
2020 Cancer Drug Resistance  
How to cite this article: Moreira M, Pobel C, Epaillard N, Simonaggio A, Oudard S, Vano YA. Resistance to cancer immunotherapy in metastatic renal cell carcinoma.Cancer Drug Resist 2020;3:454-71. http://dx. Abstract The prognosis of metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (mccRCC) has changed dramatically over the years with the emergence of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) used alone, or in combination with another ICI, or with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase
more » ... r tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Although major response rates have been observed with ICI, many patients do not respond, reflecting primary resistance, and durable responses remain exceptional, reflecting secondary resistance. Factors contributing to primary and acquired resistance are manifold, including patient-intrinsic factors, tumor cell-intrinsic factors and factors associated with the tumoral microenvironment (TME). While some mechanisms of resistance are common to several tumor types, others are specific to mccRCC. Predictive biomarkers and alternative strategies are needed to overcome this resistance. This review provides an overview of the major ICI resistance mechanisms, highlights the potential of the TME to induce resistance to ICI, and discusses the predictive biomarkers available to guide therapeutic choice.
doi:10.20517/cdr.2020.16 fatcat:uqfldsp4anhp5hm64bxjnk5nvu