Neuropsichyatric Manifestations of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Diagnosis and Treatment Approach
Serbian Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Neuropsychiatric involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus includes heterogeneous manifestations involving both the central and peripheral nervous system. A major issue in clinical evaluation is the attribution of neuropsychiatric symptoms to systemic lupus erithematosus. Antiphospholipid antibodies, immune complex, microangiopathy, early and accelerated arteriosclerosis are factors that have the main role in pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric manifestations of systemic lupus erithematosus. Th
... erithematosus. Th ere are no neurological symptoms specific to systemic lupus erithematosus, but they can also occur very commonly in the general population. Lesions of nervous system can be focal or diff use and may be due to systemic lupus erithematosus itself (primary lesions), but it also may be caused by other diseases or disbalances. Therapy of the neuropsychiatric manifestations depends on the nature of the pathological process (dominant inflammation or thrombosis). If it is result of an inflammatory neurotoxic process and in the presence of an increased activity of systemic lupus erithematosus, therapy includes glycocorticoids independently or in combination with immunosuppressives. Focal neuropsychiatric syndrome with antiphospholipid antibodies positivity should be treated with anticoagulant and/ or antiplatelet therapy. In addition, control of classical cardiovascular risk factors, stop smoking, and treatment with hydroxychloroquine is recommended.