Sodium para-aminosalicylic acid inhibits manganese-induced NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent pyroptosis by inhibiting NF-κB pathway activation and oxidative stress
Journal of Neuroinflammation
Background The activation of NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome-dependent pyroptosis has been shown to play a vital role in the pathology of manganese (Mn)-induced neurotoxicity. Sodium para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS-Na) has a positive effect on the treatment of manganism. However, the mechanism is still unclear. We hypothesized that PAS-Na might act through NLRP3. Methods The microglial cell line BV2 and male Sprague-Dawley rats were used to investigate the impacts of PAS-Na on
... cts of PAS-Na on Mn-induced NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent pyroptosis. The related protein of the NF-κB pathway and NLRP3-inflammasome-dependent pyroptosis was detected by western blot. The reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial membrane potential were detected by immunofluorescence staining and flow cytometry. The activation of microglia and the gasdermin D (GSDMD) were detected by immunofluorescence staining. Results Our results showed that Mn treatment induced oxidative stress and activated the NF-κB pathway by increasing the phosphorylation of p65 and IkB-α in BV2 cells and in the basal ganglia of rats. PAS-Na could alleviate Mn-induced oxidative stress damage by inhibiting ROS generation, increasing mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP levels, thereby reducing the phosphorylation of p65 and IkB-α. Besides, Mn treatment could activate the NLRP3 pathway and promote the secretion of IL-18 and IL-1β, mediating pyroptosis in BV2 cells and in the basal ganglia and hippocampus of rats. But an inhibitor of NF-κb (JSH-23) treatment could significantly reduce LDH release, the expression of NLRP3 and Cleaved CASP1 protein and IL-1β and IL-18 mRNA level in BV2 cells. Interestingly, the effect of PAS-Na treatment in Mn-treated BV2 cells is similar to those of JSH-23. Besides, immunofluorescence results showed that PAS-Na reduced the increase number of activated microglia, which stained positively for GSDMD. Conclusion PAS-Na antagonized Mn-induced NLRP3 inflammasome dependent pyroptosis through inhibiting NF-κB pathway activation and oxidative stress.