Age-Related Macular Degeneration
Van Nostrand's Scientific Encyclopedia
Clinical question: Is there any new knowledge about the pathogenesis and treatment of age-related macular degeneration (AMD)? Results: We now understand better the biochemical and pathological pathways involved in the genesis of AMD. Treatment of exudative AMD is based on intravitreal injection of new antivascular endothelial growth factor drugs for which there does not yet exist a unique recognized strategy of administration. No therapies are actually available for atrophic AMD, despite some
... perimental new pharmacological approaches. Implementation: strategy of administration, safety of intravitreal injection Age-related macular degeneration Definition: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a condition characterized, in the early stages, by slow development and progression, absence of symptoms over a number of years, and extensive retinal deposits called drusen, often associated with pigmentary abnormalities (early AMD). The advanced presentation of AMD also includes geographic atrophy and choroidal neovascularization. The patient complains of metamorphopsia, discromatopsia, vision loss, and central scotoma. Incidence: AMD is the leading cause of blindness and visual disability in patients over the age of 55 years in developed countries. The prevalence of early AMD is 18% in the population aged 65 -74 years and 30% in the population older than 74 years. Approximately 10%-15% of patients with AMD have severe central vision loss. The prevalence of geographic atrophy (atrophic AMD) is 3.5% in subjects older than 75 years, and accounts for approximately half the prevalence of choroidal neovascularization (exudative or neovascular AMD). Atrophic AMD accounts for approximately 25% of cases with severe central vision loss. Exudative AMD accounts for approximately 75% of cases with severe central vision loss.