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This paper adds further evidence supporting Jared Diamond's hypothesis that global technological differences in the pre-modern era were fundamentally due to bio-geographic factors: the time elapsed since the onset of agriculture and husbandry, the size of the population relative to the territories, the shape of continents. An alternative hypothesis, that genetic diversity within populations is the ultimate cause of global inequalities, is also examined. Results show how there is no robustdoi:10.6084/m9.figshare.5739609.v1 fatcat:tq74qkxweneajcvmhurncge27m