PECULIARITIES OF NAKED OAT GRAIN AS A CEREAL CULTURE
Zernovì Produkti ì Kombìkorma
Archaeological excavations show that oats were known as early as the Bronze Age, from about 1500-1700 BC. According to various historical data, the homeland of the oat culture forms is Southern Europe, Northeast China and Mongolia. The first archeological findings of oat grain were discovered in Germany and date back to the I-VI c. In Kievan Rus oats began to grow from about the VI. For many centuries, oats have been an important feed and foof grain,and with the beginning of the twentieth
... the twentieth century there is an increase in its use in agriculture and processing. Widespread products of oat processing in different countries of the world are groats, cereals, flour and food bran, in addition to traditional products produce instant cereals, muesli, various intended semi-finished products. Oats are also widely used in other industries: it is additionally used in the production of beer, oat milk, ice cream, bread, cookies, baby food, etc. In Ukraine, oats are grown mainly as ancillary technical culture. The area of crops is from 5000 to 6000 km2. The main production is concentrated in Polissia and Forest-Steppe, mainly spring oats are grown, to a lesser extent semi-winter and winter forms. According to the State Statistics Service of Ukraine, the gross grain harvest in the last 5-7 years has increased and is at the level of 458 ... 616 thousand tons of grain per year. Over the past 20 years, oat production in Ukraine has been declining, due to the fact that most of it is grown for cereals, with a relatively small crop yield and high cultivation costs, even with the use of state-of-the-art agrotechnology. About 60,000 tonnes of oats are used annually to meet the needs of the domestic groats industry. Breeders have received new grains that have increased nutritional and technological value. Considering new varieties of oats, it is possible to distinguish naked forms of Avena nuda (naked oats). In the world, naked oats is a valuable crop that has a consistently high nutritional value that allows it to be used in various industries. This type of oat is derived by the method of individual selection from a cross-hybrid population. The variety of this oat is inermis, morphologically different from the hull varieties by the structure of the spikelets, which determines the peculiarities of its quantitative and qualitative indicators The peculiarity of naked oats is the absence of flower hulls firmly bound to the grain surface (20 ... 40% in oat hulled forms), which significantly improves its properties. The hulls in the naked varieties are soft, do not cover the grain very tightly and are almost completely separated in the process of grain harvesting and threshing.