Sustainable manufacturing of consumer appliances: Reducing life cycle environmental impacts and costs of domestic ovens
Sustainable Production and Consumption
A B S T R A C T Electric ovens are among the least energy efficient appliances, with the efficiency of only 10%-12%. With new policy instruments in Europe requiring energy reduction, manufactures are seeking to develop more efficient domestic appliances. The aim of this paper is to aid sustainable manufacturing of an innovative, highly-efficient oven (HEO) by evaluating its life cycle environmental impacts and costs in comparison to conventional ovens. The results suggest that the HEO has
... t the HEO has 9%-62% lower environmental impacts than conventional ovens with the equivalent savings in the life cycle costs ranging from 25% to 61%. Replacement of conventional ovens by HEO in Europe (EU28) would save 0.5-5.2 Mt of CO 2 eq. and the life cycle costs would be lower by e0.5-1.96 billion (10 9 ) per year. At the household level, energy consumption would be reduced by up to 30% and consumer costs by 25%-50%. These results suggest that policy measures should be put in place to encourage the uptake of energy efficient ovens by consumers. use by domestic appliances and particularly ovens, the EU has adopted several policy instruments, including the Energy Labelling Directive (EC, 2013a). The Directive, which for ovens came into force in January 2015, classifies ovens into seven categories, from A+++ to D, based on the energy efficiency of the oven cavity. The Directive requires manufacturers and retailers to display on a label the energy consumption by the oven (expressed in kWh per cycle) based on a standard load. In anticipation of the Directive, manufactures have been seeking to develop more efficient appliances. This paper considers sustainable manufacturing of a new highlyefficient oven (HEO), being developed by Whirlpool, one of the largest oven manufacturers in the world. The primary aim of developing the HEO is to increase the energy efficiency of domestic ovens during use by around 30% relative to http://dx.