Low Birth Weight: Prevalence and Risk Factors

Gurmeet Singh
2020 Journal of Gynecology and Womens Health  
Abstarct Background: World Health Organization defines Low birth weight as a birth weight of less than 2500gm. Low birth weight babies have higher mortality, have impaired academic achievements, and increased risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Aim: This study aims to define low birth weight, estimate it's prevalence and study it's correlation with maternal age, weight, height and haemoglobin levels, gender of the baby, seasonal variations. Results: 29 out of 200 (14.5%) of babies were
more » ... found to have low birth weight (Chart 1). 20 out of 29 (68.96%) low birth weight babies were delivered by Caesarean section as compared to 9 (31.03%) babies who were born by normal delivery. Maternal age was analysed and it was observed that 9 patients (31.03%) aged less than 20 years, 8 patients (27.58%) were in the age bracket of 21-30 years and 12 patients (41.37%) belonged to the age group between 31-40 years (Chart2). The sex of low birth weight babies was studied and it was observed that 20 (68.96%) low birth weight babies were females as against 9 (31.03%) male babies. 17 patients (58.62%) who delivered low birth weight babies were primigravidae as compared to 12 patients (41.37%) who were multigravidae.3 patients (10.34%). had maternal weight of less than 50kg, 17 patients (58.62%) had weight between 51-55kg and 9 patients (31.03%) had weight of more than 55kg. Maternal height was studied and it was observed that 23 patients (79.31%) had a height in the range of 151-160cm and only 6 patients (20.68%) who delivered low birth weight babies had height measuring more than 160 cm. Haemoglobin levels of patients with low birth weight babies were observed to find that 5 patients (17.24%) had haemoglobin levels of less than 10 gm%, 12 patients (41.37%) had haemoglobin levels between 10.1-11gm% and 12 patients (41.37%) had a haemoglobin level of more than 12.1 gm%. Analysis of seasonal variation amongst low birth weight babies was done and it was observed that 13 babies (44.82%) were born between March to May, 8 babies (27.58%) were born between the months of June to September and 8 babies (27.58%) were delivered between the months of October to February. 12 (41.37%) of the low birth weight babies were pre term whereas 17 babies (58.62%) delivered after full term.
doi:10.19080/jgwh.2020.19.556018 fatcat:nsqluu5oojd5tchmwv4yhudhku