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Force information from needle insertions was measured and modeled for use in robot-assisted percutaneous therapies. Data was collected on bovine livers using the Johns Hopkins University Steady Hand Robot, and modeled in three parts: force due to capsule stiffness, friction, and cutting. Capsule stiffness is modeled by a nonlinear spring model, friction by a modified Karnopp model, and cutting by the remaining forces, which appear to be constant for a given tissue sample. During robot-assisteddoi:10.1109/robot.2002.1014848 dblp:conf/icra/SimoneO02 fatcat:qxgfqkzjfnf47mpseciqndoymy