Control-Based 4D Printing: Adaptive 4D-Printed Systems

Ali Zolfagharian, Akif Kaynak, Mahdi Bodaghi, Abbas Z. Kouzani, Saleh Gharaie, Saeid Nahavandi
2020 Applied Sciences  
: Building on the recent progress of four-dimensional (4D) printing to produce dynamic structures, this study aimed to bring this technology to the next level by introducing control-based 4D printing to develop adaptive 4D-printed systems with highly versatile multi-disciplinary applications, including medicine, in the form of assisted soft robots, smart textiles as wearable electronics and other industries such as agriculture and microfluidics. This study introduced and analysed adaptive
more » ... nted systems with an advanced manufacturing approach for developing stimuli-responsive constructs that organically adapted to environmental dynamic situations and uncertainties as nature does. The adaptive 4D-printed systems incorporated synergic integration of three-dimensional (3D)-printed sensors into 4D-printing and control units, which could be assembled and programmed to transform their shapes based on the assigned tasks and environmental stimuli. This paper demonstrates the adaptivity of these systems via a combination of proprioceptive sensory feedback, modeling and controllers, as well as the challenges and future opportunities they present.
doi:10.3390/app10093020 fatcat:gmjopy24lfaxbb5iswmfseb3ce