Circulating Cardiac Biomarkers in Diabetes Mellitus: A New Dawn for Risk Stratification—A Narrative Review

Alexander E. Berezin, Alexander A. Berezin
2020 Diabetes Therapy  
The aim of this narrative review is to update the current knowledge on the differential choice of circulating cardiac biomarkers in patients with prediabetes and established type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There are numerous circulating biomarkers with unconfirmed abilities to predict clinical outcomes in pre-DM and DM individuals; the prognostication ability of the cardiac biomarkers reported here has been established, and they are still being studied. The conventional cardiac biomarkers,
more » ... as natriuretic peptides (NPs), soluble suppressor tumorigenisity-2, high-sensitivity circulating cardiac troponins and galectin-3, were useful to ascertain cardiovascular (CV) risk. Each cardiac biomarker has its strengths and weaknesses that affect the price of usage, specificity, sensitivity, predictive value and superiority in face-to-face comparisons. Additionally, there have been confusing reports regarding their abilities to be predictably relevant among patients without known CV disease. The large spectrum of promising cardiac biomarkers (growth/differential factor-15, heart-type fatty acid-binding protein, cardiotrophin-1, carboxy-terminal telopeptide of collagen type 1, apelin and non-coding RNAs) is discussed in the context of predicting CV diseases and events in patients with known prediabetes and T2DM. Various reasons have been critically discussed related to the variable findings regarding biomarker-based prediction of CV risk among patients with metabolic disease. It was found that NPs and hs-cTnT are still the most important tools that have an affordable price as well as high sensitivity and specificity to predict clinical outcomes among patients with pre-DM and DM in routine clinical practice, but other circulating biomarkers need to be carefully investigated in large trials in the future.
doi:10.1007/s13300-020-00835-9 pmid:32430864 fatcat:pksto6k5ojhftffswas6nwrhoa