Absolute and Relative Gravity Measurements at Volcanoes: Current State and New Developments Under the NEWTON-g Project [chapter]

F. Greco, D. Carbone, F. Cannavò, A. A. Messina, G. Siligato
2020 International Association of Geodesy Symposia  
AbstractGravity changes associated with volcanic processes occur over a wide range of time scales, from minutes to years and with magnitudes between a few and a few hundred microGal. High-precision instruments are needed to detect such small signals and both time-lapse surveys along networks of stations, and continuous measurements at single points, are accomplished. Continuous volcano gravimetry is mostly carried out through relative gravimeters, either superconducting instruments, providing
more » ... uments, providing higher quality data, or the more widely used spring meters. On the other hand, time-lapse surveys can be carried out with relative (spring) gravimeters, that measure gravity differences between pairs of stations, or by absolute gravimeters, capable of measuring the absolute value of the gravitational acceleration at the observation point. Here we present the state-of-the-art of terrestrial gravity measurements to monitor and study active volcanoes and the possibilities of new gravimeters that are under development. In particular, we present data from a mini array of three iGrav superconducting gravimeters (SGs) at Mount Etna (the first network of SGs ever installed on an active volcano). A comparison between continuous gravity measurements recorded through the iGrav#016 superconducting gravimeter at Serra La Nave station (1730 m a.s.l.) and absolute gravity data collected with the Microg LaCoste FG5#238 gravimeter in the framework of repeated campaigns is also presented. Furthermore, we introduce the Horizon 2020 NEWTON-g project (New Tools for Terrain Gravimetry), funded under the FET-OPEN Research and Innovation Actions call, Work Programme 2016–2017 (Grant Agreement No 801221). In the framework of this project, we aim to develop a field-compatible gravity imager, including an array of low-costs Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS)-based relative gravimeters, anchored on an absolute quantum gravimeter. After the design and production phases, the gravity imager will be field-tested at Mt. Etna (Italy) during the last 2 years of the project.
doi:10.1007/1345_2020_126 fatcat:wv7tznrau5ghhgj2arsfes53d4