H. M. Buist
1912 BMJ (Clinical Research Edition)  
THE Motor Exhibition which closed at Olympia, Kensington, on November 16tll contained such a multitude of novelties, all chiefly of a minor character, that it has been almost impossible to make acquaintance with all in the eiglht days during which the display has been open to the public. But the first and last impression is still that the miiain advance has been the tendency to fit self-starters and the further growth of the use of electric lighting systems, for plant are now being made on a
more » ... being made on a smaller scale to suit middle and low-powered cars and slender. piTises. SELF-STARTING APPLIAN-CES. The self-starters of the electrical sort are fitted to the Cadiliac, the White, the Crossley, the Lancia, and the Lanchester, the last-named firm using the Delco or Cadillac system where required. The Crossley system, which has not been previously .mentioned in these columns, consists of a dynamo mounted alongside the enginie and clhain-driveni from the cranksllaft, epicyclic gear being contained in ani extension of the dynamiio bracket. The mere movemelnt of a daslhboard lever initerposes this sun and planet gear between the chain drive and the dynamo spindle so that the dynamo has a 20 to 1 reductiona wheni it is startina the motor, while the mrioment the enginie begins firing under its own power the gear goes outt of action in automatic fashioni. In the event of back fire the drag on the brake tlhat applies tlle epicyclic mechanis;m automatically releases tlhe gear, whliclh adds abouLt 15 lb. weight to the dynamlo. When the dlynamuo drives the motor, it is series-connected in automatic fashion by the lever on the' daslhboard. As the engirne is driving the dynamo, the dynamio works a shunt Wound generator for the purpose of charging the battery of accumulators which supplies.the current for lamps and for starting apparatus. The Lancia lhas a Bosclh auxiliary engine starting mnagnieto nmounted oln the dlaslhboard, and (lepenids on tlle cylinders beinig already charged w-vith gas. Tlle Adler, the Clemlent, the Star, and La Buiire firins mnake use of the spring system, three of tlhem using the Ever-Ready pattern already described in these colUmIns, while the La Buire device is a combined spring and lhand arranagement worked frolm the driver's seat by a side lever similar to a brake one. By means of a steel cord this lever works a ratchet starting crank in place of the usual starting handle. The lever is assisted by a spring. The ratchet startinog cranik is fitted with a centrifucgal disengaging clutclh that flies out of action in automiatic fashion immediately the engrine begins to tuLrn uinder its own power, and which is also desiagned to free itself in tlhe event of back-firing. ELECTRIC LIGHTING. Dynamo lighting sets are being fitted to aln incIireasiilng number of cars. Thus the C.A. V. type, with tlle dynamo (driven from the rear end of the cam-slhaft, is fitted by Armnstrong-Whitworth, Austin and Mass, while oln tlle Daimler the same device is belt-driven from the front ncld of the cam-shaft, on the Brasier it is belt-driven from the water-pump shaft, and on the 20-30 lh.p. Picard-Pictet it is driven from a pulley behind the clutcl. On the Arrol-Johnston and tlle Briton the Rotax-Leitner type of dynamo is belt-driven from the camn-shaft, wlile on the Vulcan it is belt-driveni from a pulley between the clutch and gearbox. The Delco system on the Cadillac is shaft-driven by the manaaeto-spindle, anid on the Lancihester it is chain-driven from the transmission shaft behind the gearbox. The Scott-Crossley type of dynamo is driven by aun enclosed chain from the crankshaft of the Crossley car. The Rushmore .ynamo on the Lancia is belt-driven fromi the propeller slhaft just behind the gearbox, and the Bleriot dynamno oni tlle 20-30 Picard-Pictet model is b3lt-drivcn from a pulley behind the clutch, while the Ducellier dynamo is mrioulnted alonQgside the magneto on the Slheffield-Sim-plex, and is driven by a separate spindle. The Brolt type on the Standlard is belt-driven from anl aluminium pulley between the clutch andc gearbox, while the Lorrainle-DietrXich hlas the C. J. L. machline. IGNITION. In regard to ignition devices, not only the Bosch but several other makers come forward with magneto machines completely enclosed against the intrusion of dirt, dust, and damp, these machines being fitted as standard on quite a number of cars, including, of course, the Rolls-Royce. We may take it, indeed, that the enclosed magneto machiine will be a general standard fitting in the course of a few years' time. The matter for marvel is that so many ordinary magneto machines stand up to their vork so well in wet weather. REFINE-MENTS TO ELIMINATE VIBRATION A-ND RATTLING-. A number of devices have been introduced at the slhow, too, to prevenit coachwork rattling, as instance notab]v the Van denl Plas door-catclh, whereby when the door is closed it is gripped tiglht to tlle remiainder of tlle body on the Me'tallurgique cllassis. Absence of rattling as well as efficiency are aimed at in suclh devices as those for providing adjustment of ani automllatic sort to prevent the fan-belt slipping, as instance, notably, the Benz, Cr-ossley, and De Dion practices. Alnotlher idca for preventing engine vibrations, cauising either drtium inig or minor rattles of the coachwork-, has been devised by Mr. Lanclhester by furnishing a couiple of spindles, eacli weiglling only five pounds, and rotated iii opposite directions at double the cranlkslhaft speed. At high engine revolutiolns these serve as a check of iio less than lhalf a ton of force on the unbalanced forces of the engine, anifl give runnling as smooth as that on the best six-cylinder motors. In reaard to tlle question of suspension, while the great majority of the vehlicles are fitted witlh supplemenitarv slhock absorbers, the explanationi of this is chiefly that the, firms responsible for tlheim are interested in these accessories, for, frankly, the best spruing cars of the day are in nieed of no suclh auxiliaries, wlhich rather incrlease the original pluinge tllan act as any miiaterial check oni the rebound, for whichl purpose only a very few of the devices lhave been designed, sLuilc as the Gabriel '.' Sniubber,' whliclh has notlhing whatever to do with the original plunge of the spring, but wlich comnes into operationi onily whlen the act of reboundinig is occurrini.g. The fact is, the ordinary suipplenmentary coil springa or telescopina pneuLmatic device came to uis first from inFrance, where roads are in muheli worse conlditioln than lherle, anid where, in conseque-iice, the average chassis is sutpplied to the user witlh sprjiing.s of a stiffntess that would alnost alarm the average Britisi t user. Such springs cani stalnd soft-enina by supplementar v devices, which, nevertheless, do not interfere witlh thel sufficiently stiff action of tlle miain sprina in preventing the axle buimpingc against the framne of the car -xhell traversing pot-lhole roads. But Britislh cars for ave-(r\1 a: home service do not, or slhould not, need any such thliln"; unless the springing is mighty bad. Further, thesc, devices are apt to iiecrease lurchlinga tendencies of the bodyv at corniers, whichl arc not pleasant, also to let the tread of the tyres and( tlle uinder portion of the ntidguards comle(I into COntaCt When goinga oVer lumi-py roads. We lmay talke it that great and sucddeni as has been the vogune for the supplemenitary slhock absoibe-, it will not eni1dure as a genici'} fittinlg for imiany seasons miiore.
doi:10.1136/bmj.2.2708.1479-a fatcat:unekfmbuh5a5poporjh5qack6m