Adenylyl Cyclase Isoform-Selective Regulation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Proliferation and Cytoskeletal Reorganization

R. Gros, Q. Ding, J. Chorazyczewski, J. G. Pickering, L. E. Limbird, R. D. Feldman
2006 Circulation Research  
Compartmentation of cAMP signaling been demonstrated to be attributable to the structural association of protein kinase A (PKA) (via association with A-kinase anchoring proteins [AKAPs]) with phosphodiesterase and AKAP-dependent effector molecules. However, other mechanisms contributing to compartmentalization have not been rigorously explored, including the possibility that different isoforms of adenylyl cyclase (AC) may be functionally "compartmentalized" because of differential association
more » ... ntial association with tethering or signaling molecules. To this end, we examined the effect of adenoviral transduction of representative AC isoforms (AC1, AC2, AC5, and AC6) on cellular cAMP production, PKA activation, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation, cell doubling and proliferation, as well as arborization responses (an index of cAMP-mediated cytoskeletal re-organization) in vascular smooth muscle cells. When isoforms were expressed at levels to achieve comparable forskolin-stimulated AC activity, only gene transfer of AC6 significantly enhanced PKA-dependent vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation and arborization responses. Treatment of control cells, which express AC6 endogenously, as well as vascular smooth overexpressing the AC6 isoform with small interfering RNA directed against AC6, significantly suppressed both isoproterenol-stimulated cAMP accumulation and arborization. Notably, the selective effects of AC6 expression were abrogated in the presence of phosphodiesterase suppression. In contrast, only the expression of AC1 enhanced forskolin-stimulated association of ERK with AC, demonstrated by coimmuno-isolation of ERK with Flag-tagged AC1, but not with Flag-tagged AC6. To determine whether these isoform-selective effects of AC were unique to differentiated and morphologically compartmentalized vascular smooth muscle cells or were a general property of these isoforms, we examined the consequence of expression of these various isoforms in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells. Indeed, we observed similar isoform-dependent association of AC1 with ERK, activation of ERK by stimulation of AC1 with forskolin, and AC1-dependent lengthening of doubling time, indicating that these properties of AC1 are cell autologous and likely result from AC1-dependent protein-protein interactions. In aggregate, these findings suggest that isoformselective signaling complexes likely contribute to various functional consequences of cAMP elevation in vascular smooth muscle cells. (Circ Res. 2006;99:845-852.)
doi:10.1161/01.res.0000245189.21703.c0 pmid:16973907 fatcat:dpgsake5rfa5dhxken3igidmsq