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The bag-of-visual-words (BoW) representation has received wide application and public acceptance for visual categorization. However, the histogram based image representation ignores the spatial information and correlations among visual words. To tackle these problems, in this paper, we propose to use some image regions called 'components', as the higher-level visual elements to represent an image associating with the lower-level elements of 'visual words'. Then we formulate the task of visualdoi:10.1109/icip.2011.6116130 dblp:conf/icip/LiuZTXLM11 fatcat:vbb6u3zr7fhk3bxuc5s6yqacbe