HIV-Specific CAR T Cells with CD28 or 4-1BB Signaling Domains Are Phenotypically and Functionally Distinct and Effective at Suppressing HIV and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus

Emily K. Cartwright, Mary S. Pampusch, Aaron K. Rendahl, Edward A. Berger, Natalie Coleman-Fuller, Pamela J. Skinner
2022 ImmunoHorizons  
Despite mounting a robust antiviral CD8 T cell response to HIV infection, most infected individuals are unable to control HIV viral load without antiretroviral therapy (ART). Chimeric Ag receptor (CAR) T cell treatment is under intensive investigation as an alternative therapy for ART-free remission of chronic HIV infection. However, achieving durable remission of HIV will require a successful balance between CAR T cell effector function and persistence. CAR T cells with CD28 costimulatory
more » ... ns have robust effector function but limited persistence in vivo, whereas CAR T cells with 4-1BB costimulatory domains present a more undifferentiated phenotype and greater in vivo persistence. We compared the in vitro phenotype and function of rhesus macaque and human CAR T cells that contained either the CD28 or 4-1BB costimulatory domain; both constructs also included CARs that are bispecific for gp120 of HIV or SIV and the CXCR5 moiety to promote in vivo homing of CAR/CXCR5 T cells to B cell follicles. Cells were transduced using a gammaretroviral vector and evaluated using flow cytometry. 4-1BB-CAR/CXCR5 T cells were phenotypically distinct from CD28-CAR/CXCR5 T cells and showed increased expression of CAR and CD95. Importantly, both CD28- and 4-1BB-CAR/CXCR5 T cells retained equal capacity to recognize and suppress SIV in vitro. These studies provide new insights into rhesus macaque and human 4-1BB- and CD28-bearing CAR T cells.
doi:10.4049/immunohorizons.2200073 pmid:36220186 fatcat:xiqoilb65zaqxielsg6vtnvcza