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South Africa has very high unemployment, yet few adults work informally in small ...rms. This paper tests whether centralized bargaining, by which unionized large ...rms extend arbitration agreements to non-unionized smaller ...rms, contributes to this problem. While local labor market characteristics in ‡uence the location of these agreements, their coverage is spatially discontinuous, allowing identi...cation by spatial regression discontinuity. Centralized bargaining agreements are found todoi:10.1257/app.4.3.138 fatcat:mhr4udtagvfrdijqwvwkfh7egi