Interpretation of T-wave inversion in physiological and pathological conditions: Current state and future perspectives

Flavio D'Ascenzi, Francesca Anselmi, Paolo Emilio Adami, Antonio Pelliccia
2020 Clinical Cardiology  
The presence of T-wave inversion (TWI) at 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) in competitive athletes is one of the major diagnostic challenges for sports physicians and consulting cardiologists. Indeed, while the presence of TWI may be associated with some benign conditions and it may be occasionally seen in healthy athletes presenting signs of cardiac remodeling, it may also represent an early sign of an underlying, concealed structural heart disease or life-threatening arrhythmogenic
more » ... hies, which may be responsible for exercise-related sudden cardiac death (SCD). The interpretation of TWI in athletes is complex and the inherent implications for the clinical practice represent a conundrum for physicians. Accordingly, the detection of TWI should be viewed as a potential red flag on the ECG of young and apparently healthy athletes and warrants further investigations because it may represent the initial expression of cardiomyopathies that may not be evident until many years later and that may ultimately be associated with adverse outcomes. The aim of this review is, therefore, to report an update of the literature on TWI in athletes, with a specific focus on the interpretation and management.
doi:10.1002/clc.23365 pmid:32259342 fatcat:k5za4xrqhzebbk5kx6l66uepum