Development and validation of an interferon signature predicting prognosis and treatment response for glioblastoma
Interferon treatment, as an important approach of anti-tumor immunotherapy, has been implemented in multiple clinical trials of glioma. However, only a small number of gliomas benefit from it. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the clinical role of interferons and to establish robust biomarkers to facilitate its application. Materials and methods: This study reviewed 1,241 glioblastoma (GBM) and 1,068 lower grade glioma (LGG) patients from six glioma cohorts. The transcription matrix and
... clinical information were analyzed using R software, GraphPad Prism 7 and Medcalc, etc. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining were performed for validation in protein level. Results: Interferon signaling was significantly enhanced in GBM. An interferon signature was developed based on five interferon genes with prognostic significance, which could reflect various interferon statuses. Survival analysis showed the signature could serve as an unfavorable prognostic factor independently. We also established a nomogram model integrating the risk signature into traditional prognostic factors, which increased the validity of survival prediction. Moreover, high-risk group conferred resistance to chemotherapy and high IFNB1 expression levels. Functional analysis showed that the high-risk group was associated with overloaded immune response. Microenvironment analysis and IHC staining found that high-risk group occupied a disorganized microenvironment which was characterized by an enrichment of M0 macrophages and neutrophils, but less infiltration of activated nature killing (NK) cells and M1 type macrophages. Conclusion: This interferon signature was an independent indicator for unfavorable prognosis and showed great potential for screening out patients who will benefit from chemotherapy and interferon treatment.