Paediatric and adult congenital cardiology education and training in Europe

Colin J McMahon, Ruth Heying, Werner Budts, Anna Cavigelli-Brunner, Maria Shkolnikova, Ina Michel-Behnke, Rainer Kozlik-Feldmann, Håkan Wåhlander, Daniel DeWolf, Sylvie Difilippo, Laslo Kornyei, Maria Giovanna Russo (+26 others)
Limited data exist on training of European paediatric and adult congenital cardiologists. A structured and approved questionnaire was circulated to national delegates of Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology in 33 European countries. Delegates from 30 countries (91%) responded. Paediatric cardiology was not recognised as a distinct speciality by the respective ministry of Health in seven countries (23%). Twenty countries (67%) have formally accredited paediatric
more » ... y training programmes, seven (23%) have substantial informal (not accredited or certified) training, and three (10%) have very limited or no programme. Twenty-two countries have a curriculum. Twelve countries have a national training director. There was one paediatric cardiology centre per 2.66 million population (range 0.87-9.64 million), one cardiac surgical centre per 4.73 million population (range 1.63-10.72 million), and one training centre per 4.29 million population (range 1.63-10.72 million population). The median number of paediatric cardiology fellows per training programme was 4 (range 1-17), and duration of training was 3 years (range 2-5 years). An exit examination in paediatric cardiology was conducted in 16 countries (53%) and certification provided by 20 countries (67%). Paediatric cardiologist number is affected by gross domestic product (R2 = 0.41). Training varies markedly across European countries. Although formal fellowship programmes exist in many countries, several countries have informal training or no training. Only a minority of countries provide both exit examination and certification. Harmonisation of training and standardisation of exit examination and certification could reduce variation in training thereby promoting high-quality care by European congenital cardiologists.
doi:10.1017/s104795112100528x pmid:35227341 fatcat:lottxoojabdrdmwbl2n4iazfqi