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This study shows how Riga and Arhus identified, formulated and communicated city re-branding. Our analysis concentrates on resident responses to city re-branding and how such responses could force the municipalities to withdraw their re-branding. A city loses its identity if it is globalized. In the Riga and Aarhus cases, the municipalities tried to find a global voice, which contradicted local traditions; and in both cases, the redefinition of city image took place top-down and not bottom-up.doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.09.093 fatcat:5stlfcmwrrdnrdwk3l5lxtezsa