Porous Carbon-Based Supercapacitors Directly Derived from Metal–Organic Frameworks
Hyun-Chul Kim, Seong Huh
Numerously different porous carbons have been prepared and used in a wide range of practical applications. Porous carbons are also ideal electrode materials for efficient energy storage devices due to their large surface areas, capacious pore spaces, and superior chemical stability compared to other porous materials. Not only the electrical double-layer capacitance (EDLC)-based charge storage but also the pseudocapacitance driven by various dopants in the carbon matrix plays a significant role
... n enhancing the electrochemical supercapacitive performance of porous carbons. Since the electrochemical capacitive activities are primarily based on EDLC and further enhanced by pseudocapacitance, high-surface carbons are desirable for these applications. The porosity of carbons plays a crucial role in enhancing the performance as well. We have recently witnessed that metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) could be very effective self-sacrificing templates, or precursors, for new high-surface carbons for supercapacitors, or ultracapacitors. Many MOFs can be self-sacrificing precursors for carbonaceous porous materials in a simple yet effective direct carbonization to produce porous carbons. The constituent metal ions can be either completely removed during the carbonization or transformed into valuable redox-active centers for additional faradaic reactions to enhance the electrochemical performance of carbon electrodes. Some heteroatoms of the bridging ligands and solvate molecules can be easily incorporated into carbon matrices to generate heteroatom-doped carbons with pseudocapacitive behavior and good surface wettability. We categorized these MOF-derived porous carbons into three main types: (i) pure and heteroatom-doped carbons, (ii) metallic nanoparticle-containing carbons, and (iii) carbon-based composites with other carbon-based materials or redox-active metal species. Based on these cases summarized in this review, new MOF-derived porous carbons with much enhanced capacitive performance and stability will be envisioned.