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Vascular pathology is the second most common neuropathology of dementia after Alzheimer's disease (AD), with small vessels disease (SVD) being considered the major cause of vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID). This review aims to evaluate pathophysiological pathways underlying a diagnosis of VCID. Firstly, we will discuss the role of endothelial dysfunction, blood-brain barrier disruption and neuroinflammation in its pathogenesis. Then, we will analyse different biomarkersdoi:10.3390/ijms20112812 fatcat:3qvxvwapdrfvtiaysbtusqwopu