Emerging Biomarkers in Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Dementia: From Pathophysiological Pathways to Clinical Application

Virginia Cipollini, Fernanda Troili, Franco Giubilei
2019 International Journal of Molecular Sciences  
Vascular pathology is the second most common neuropathology of dementia after Alzheimer's disease (AD), with small vessels disease (SVD) being considered the major cause of vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID). This review aims to evaluate pathophysiological pathways underlying a diagnosis of VCID. Firstly, we will discuss the role of endothelial dysfunction, blood-brain barrier disruption and neuroinflammation in its pathogenesis. Then, we will analyse different biomarkers
more » ... biomarkers including the ones of inflammatory responses to central nervous system tissue injuries, of coagulation and thrombosis and of circulating microRNA. Evidences on peripheral biomarkers for VCID are still poor and large-scale, prospectively designed studies are needed to translate these findings into clinical practice, in order to set different combinations of biomarkers to use for differential diagnosis among types of dementia.
doi:10.3390/ijms20112812 fatcat:3qvxvwapdrfvtiaysbtusqwopu