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AbstractDisentangling different types of selection is a common goal in molecular evolution. Elevated dN/dS ratios (the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution rates) in focal lineages are often interpreted as signs of positive selection. Paradoxically, relaxed purifying selection can also result in elevated dN/dS ratios, but tests to distinguish these two causes are seldomly implemented. Here, we reevaluated seven case studies describing elevated dN/dS ratios in animal mtDNA and theirdoi:10.1101/2022.10.05.510972 fatcat:wkxykbn5pbetxcd3u4fsdt6gui