Lossy Planarization: A Constant-Factor Approximate Kernelization for Planar Vertex Deletion [article]

Bart M. P. Jansen, Michał Włodarczyk
2022 arXiv   pre-print
In the F-minor-free deletion problem we want to find a minimum vertex set in a given graph that intersects all minor models of graphs from the family F. The Vertex planarization problem is a special case of F-minor-free deletion for the family F = K_5, K_3,3. Whenever the family F contains at least one planar graph, then F-minor-free deletion is known to admit a constant-factor approximation algorithm and a polynomial kernelization [Fomin, Lokshtanov, Misra, and Saurabh, FOCS'12]. The Vertex
more » ... narization problem is arguably the simplest setting for which F does not contain a planar graph and the existence of a constant-factor approximation or a polynomial kernelization remains a major open problem. In this work we show that Vertex planarization admits an algorithm which is a combination of both approaches. Namely, we present a polynomial A-approximate kernelization, for some constant A > 1, based on the framework of lossy kernelization [Lokshtanov, Panolan, Ramanujan, and Saurabh, STOC'17]. Simply speaking, when given a graph G and integer k, we show how to compute a graph G' on poly(k) vertices so that any B-approximate solution to G' can be lifted to an (A*B)-approximate solution to G, as long as A*B*OPT(G) <= k. In order to achieve this, we develop a framework for sparsification of planar graphs which approximately preserves all separators and near-separators between subsets of the given terminal set. Our result yields an improvement over the state-of-art approximation algorithms for Vertex planarization. The problem admits a polynomial-time O(n^eps)-approximation algorithm, for any eps > 0, and a quasi-polynomial-time (log n)^O(1) approximation algorithm, both randomized [Kawarabayashi and Sidiropoulos, FOCS'17]. By pipelining these algorithms with our approximate kernelization, we improve the approximation factors to respectively O(OPT^eps) and (log OPT)^O(1).
arXiv:2202.02174v1 fatcat:56qsslym3nbkxlmrbacnobhbdm