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In Canada many potable water sources contain very high concentrations of Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC), accompanied by a wide range of hardness. DOC reacts with chlorine used in water disinfection to form potentially carcinogenic chlorine disinfection by-products -Trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs). Dual membrane plants that combine microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF)or nanofiltration (NF) can remove DOC and reduce THMs concentration, but these plants are prone todoi:10.1051/e3sconf/20185900001 fatcat:bcjkiirk3rhdrjfyxd7oypd6ii