1853 BMJ (Clinical Research Edition)  
The shorter average duration of life in large towns, as compared with rural districts, depends on the greater mortality in early childhood, and the sm-aller number of adults who attain to (ld age. In Liverpool and Manchester, lhalf the children born die before they are five years of age, the numbers beiDg 52 and 51 per cent. In Birminigbham, 4b per cent. of the deaths occur before this age, and in London rather more than 40 per cent; hut in Wiltshlire atLd Surrey only 3l1 per cent. The greatest
more » ... number of deatlhs in auy decennial pe.riod after the age of five occur, in Surrey, fromi 65. to 75 in iiiales, anld from 75 to kt5 in females. In Manielhester, Liverpool, anud Sheffield, the highest imortality itfter early childhood is from 3.5 to 45 in males, and from 25 to 35 in) ienmales, or forty years earlier than in the same sex in Loindloil. In Leeds, llackburn, 'reston, Stockport, Macclesfield, anl sonlc otetbr towns in which textiLe fabrics are manufactured, tlke greatest mnrtality in both sexes, after infancy is passedt, occurs from 15 to 25; althoughl in two registration districts, not mnore than twenty miles from Leeds, the highest mortalitv in both sexes is from 75 to 85, or sixty years later than in these towns. In Londonm, Iuowever, the mortality, at the period immediately succeeding to puberty, is lower even than in the rural dlistricts, more espevially in the female sex. Thiis is showvn by time tables suspended in the room, which are compiledt from the Ninth Annual Report of the Rtegistrar General, and exhibit time dleaths in London andl Surrey at different ages, ill relation to the deat.hs at all ages to the whole population, atnd also to the numbers living at each of the ages specified. ()i comparing some of the worst districts of London, suclh as St. (riles' and Clerkeiwtell, with theimore distant and rural part oif Surrey, tlhe advantage of the town over the cotintry in the smiiall nunmber of dleatlis at this period of life is more striking,. In St. Giles', theiiaiiintal mortelity in the seven years 18:18 to 1811, between the ages of 15 and 25, was 5!J males aniid 68 fenmatles to 10,0)0 ot' each sex living at that perioul of life, whlilst in the (iuildford district time numibers were 77 males% and 18) femudles. On examining tihe Tenth Annual Tcport of the Registrar General, all tlhe cIhief dliseases of infancy are founid to bie miiore fatal in London tlaln in the adjoinin rural districts. Conv ul-
doi:10.1136/bmj.s3-1.18.404 fatcat:bucop2sqqndwzhbxigwzjxschq