Liquid Biopsies in Renal Cell Carcinoma-Recent Advances and Promising New Technologies for the Early Detection of Metastatic Disease
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) displays a highly varying clinical progression, from slow growing localized tumors to very aggressive metastatic disease (mRCC). Almost a third of all patients with ccRCC show metastatic dissemination at presentation while another third develop metastasis during the course of the disease. Survival rates of mRCC patients remain low despite the development of novel targeted treatment regimens. Biomarkers indicating disease progression could help to define
... s aggressive potential and thus guide patient management. However, molecular markers that can reliably assess metastatic dissemination and disease recurrence in ccRCC have not been recommended for clinical practice to date. Liquid biopsies could provide an attractive and non-invasive method to determine the risk of recurrence or metastatic dissemination during follow-up and thus assist the search for surveillance biomarkers in ccRCC tumors. A wide spectrum of circulating molecules have already shown considerable potential for ccRCC diagnosis and prognostication. In this review, we outline state of the art of the key circulating analytes such as cfDNA, cfRNA, proteins, and exosomes that may serve as biomarkers for the longitudinal monitoring of ccRCC progression to metastasis. Moreover, we address some of the prevailing limitations in the past approaches and present promising adoptable technologies that could help to pursue the implementation of liquid biopsies as a prognostic tool for mRCC.