A copy of this work was available on the public web and has been preserved in the Wayback Machine. The capture dates from 2020; you can also visit <a rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/pdf/2007.02393v2.pdf">the original URL</a>. The file type is <code>application/pdf</code>.
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Seam carving is a representative content-aware image retargeting approach to adjust the size of an image while preserving its visually prominent content. To maintain visually important content, seam-carving algorithms first calculate the connected path of pixels, referred to as the seam, according to a defined cost function and then adjust the size of an image by removing and duplicating repeatedly calculated seams. Seam carving is actively exploited to overcome diversity in the resolution of<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2007.02393v2">arXiv:2007.02393v2</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/c4qtdak6rnbavd5wn2tkgbbm4m">fatcat:c4qtdak6rnbavd5wn2tkgbbm4m</a> </span>
more »... ages between applications and devices; hence, detecting the distortion caused by seam carving has become important in image forensics. In this paper, we propose a convolutional neural network (CNN)-based approach to classifying seam-carving-based image retargeting for reduction and expansion. To attain the ability to learn low-level features, we designed a CNN architecture comprising five types of network blocks specialized for capturing subtle signals. An ensemble module is further adopted to both enhance performance and comprehensively analyze the features in the local areas of the given image. To validate the effectiveness of our work, extensive experiments based on various CNN-based baselines were conducted. Compared to the baselines, our work exhibits state-of-the-art performance in terms of three-class classification (original, seam inserted, and seam removed). In addition, our model with the ensemble module is robust for various unseen cases. The experimental results also demonstrate that our method can be applied to localize both seam-removed and seam-inserted areas.
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