A Systematic Review of Real-Time Medical Simulations with Soft-Tissue Deformation: Computational Approaches, Interaction Devices, System Architectures, and Clinical Validations
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Simulating deformations of soft tissues is a complex engineering task, and it is even more difficult when facing the constraint between computation speed and system accuracy. However, literature lacks of a holistic review of all necessary aspects (computational approaches, interaction devices, system architectures, and clinical validations) for developing an effective system of soft-tissue simulations. This paper summarizes and analyses recent achievements of resolving these issues to estimate
... eneral trends and weakness for future developments. A systematic review process was conducted using the PRISMA protocol with three reliable scientific search engines (ScienceDirect, PubMed, and IEEE). Fifty-five relevant papers were finally selected and included into the review process, and a quality assessment procedure was also performed on them. The computational approaches were categorized into mesh, meshfree, and hybrid approaches. The interaction devices concerned about combination between virtual surgical instruments and force-feedback devices, 3D scanners, biomechanical sensors, human interface devices, 3D viewers, and 2D/3D optical cameras. System architectures were analysed based on the concepts of system execution schemes and system frameworks. In particular, system execution schemes included distribution-based, multithread-based, and multimodel-based executions. System frameworks are grouped into the input and output interaction frameworks, the graphic interaction frameworks, the modelling frameworks, and the hybrid frameworks. Clinical validation procedures are ordered as three levels: geometrical validation, model behavior validation, and user acceptability/safety validation. The present review paper provides useful information to characterize how real-time medical simulation systems with soft-tissue deformations have been developed. By clearly analysing advantages and drawbacks in each system development aspect, this review can be used as a reference guideline for developing systems of soft-tissue simulations.