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Elevated total homocysteine (tHcy), a risk factor for many chronic diseases, can be remethylated to methionine by folate. Alternatively, tHcy can be metabolized by other 1-carbon nutrients, ie, betaine and its precursor, choline.
Susan E. Hankinson, Stephanie E. Chiuve, Edward L. Giovannucci, Steven H. Zeisel, Lauren W. Dougherty, Eric B. Rimm, Walter C. Willett. "The association between betaine and choline intakes and the plasma concentrations of homocysteine in women." (2007)