Single-Particle Excitations under Coexisting Electron Correlation and Disorder: A Numerical Study of the Anderson–Hubbard Model
Hiroshi Shinaoka, Masatoshi Imada
Journal of the Physical Society of Japan
Interplay of electron correlation and randomness is studied by using the Anderson-Hubbard model within the Hartree-Fock approximation. Under the coexistence of short-range interaction and diagonal disorder, we obtain the ground-state phase diagram in three dimensions, which includes an antiferromagnetic insulator, an antiferromagnetic metal, a paramagnetic insulator (Anderson-localized insulator) and a paramagnetic metal. Although only the short-range interaction is present in this model, we
... d unconventional soft gaps in the insulating phases irrespective of electron filling, spatial dimensions and long-range order, where the single-particle density of states (DOS) vanishes with a power-law scaling in one dimension (1D) or even faster in two dimensions (2D) and three dimensions (3D) toward the Fermi energy. We call it soft Hubbard gap. Moreover, exact-diagonalization results in 1D support the formation of the soft Hubbard gap beyond the mean-field level. The formation of the soft Hubbard gap cannot be attributed to a conventional theory by Efros and Shklovskii (ES) owing the emergence of soft gaps to the long-range Coulomb interaction. Indeed, based on a picture of multivalley energy landscape, we propose a phenomenological scaling theory, which predicts a scaling of the DOS in perfect agreement with the numerical results. We further discuss a correction of the scaling of the DOS by the long-range part of the Coulomb interaction, which modifies the scaling of Efros and Shklovskii. Furthermore, explicit formulae for the temperature dependence of the DC resistivity via variable-range hopping under the influence of the soft gaps are derived. Finally, we compare the present theory with experimental results of SrRu_1-xTi_xO_3.