The Potential of Intranasal Insulin in the Management of Metabolic Disorders

Manfred Hallschmid, Bernd Schultes
2008 European Endocrinology  
For a long time the brain was believed to be insensitive to the effects of insulin. However, 30 years ago it was shown that insulin and insulin receptors are ubiquitously found in the brain. 1, 2 Insulin accesses the brain from the systemic circulation via a transporter-mediated mechanism. 3 The first hints at clinically relevant effects of insulin in the
doi:10.17925/ee.2008.04.02.40 fatcat:io7qlpez5rbfflo2saze3vn3tq