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A large body of findings has tied midfrontal theta-band (4-8 Hz) oscillatory activity to adaptive control mechanisms during response conflict. Thus far, this evidence has been correlational. To evaluate whether theta oscillations are causally involved in conflict processing, we applied transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) in the theta band to a midfrontal scalp region, while human subjects performed a spatial response conflict task. Conflict was introduced by incongruency betweendoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0138984 pmid:26405801 pmcid:PMC4583279 fatcat:qtytifgz5zf4zlw6absloomyde