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Numismática omeya oriental y de Al-Andalus
Orthodox caliph c Umar emitted the first Muslim currencies. These had religious inscriptions..The coins of gold and copper of the Byzantine Empire, and the coins of silver of the Sasanian Empire were imitated. Later, the fifth Umayyad caliph, Abd al-Malik b. Marwan, reformed the Islamic monetary system. The new types of currencies were coined in all the Islamic Caliphate, and also in al-Andalus. The reproduction of people, animals and stellar elements disappeared of the coins. The inscriptions,doi:10.12795/ph.2005.v19.i01.02 fatcat:n4gwh3d5lndrnlclbuxkzr4f3e