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Previous research has shown that passage-level evidence can bring added benefits to document retrieval when documents are long or span different subject areas. Recent developments in language modeling approach to IR provided a new effective alternative to traditional retrieval models. These two streams of research motivate us to examine the use of passages in a language model framework. This paper reports on experiments using passages in a simple language model and a relevance model, anddoi:10.1145/584792.584854 dblp:conf/cikm/LiuC02 fatcat:folf4uegrvcy5jiseudlvfevb4