Clinical differentiation of psychogenic non-epileptic seizure: a practical diagnostic approach

I. Putu Eka Widyadharma, Andreas Soejitno, D. P. G. Purwa Samatra, Anna M. G. Sinardja
2021 The Egyptian Journal of Neurology Psychiatry and Neurosurgery  
Background Psychogenic non-epileptic seizure (PNES) has long been the counterpart of epileptic seizure (ES). Despite ample of evidence differentiating the two, PNES mistakenly diagnosed as ES was still common, resulting in unnecessary exposure to long-term antiepileptic medications and reduced patient's and caregiver's quality of life, not to mention the burgeoning financial costs. Objectives In this review, we aimed to elucidate various differences between PNES and epileptic seizure with
more » ... t to baseline characteristics, seizure semiology, EEG pattern, and other key hallmark features. Methods An unstructured search was carried out in PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE using keywords pertinent to PNES and ES differentiation. Relevant information was subsequently summarized herein. Results PNES differs significantly with ES in terms of baseline characteristics, prodromal symptoms, seizure semiology, presence of pseudosleep, and other hallmark features (for instance provoking seizure with suggestion). The combined approach, if applied appropriately, can yield high diagnostic yield. Conclusions PNES can be clearly differentiated from ES via careful adherence to a set of valid clinical cues. The summarized clinical hallmarks is highly useful to prevent unnecessary ES diagnosis and treatment with AEDs.
doi:10.1186/s41983-021-00272-w fatcat:ufbzgwhb55cvlhs4qnr7huypqq