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The aim of this study was to evaluate the tooth movement efficacy of retraction springs made of a new β-titanium alloy, "gum metal", which has a low Young's modulus and nonlinear super elasticity. Using double loop springs incorporated into an archwire made of gum metal (GUM) and titanium molybdenum alloy (TMA), the maxillary anterior teeth were moved distally to close an extraction space. The long-term movements were simulated by the finite element method. Its procedure was constructed of twodoi:10.3390/ma14112934 pmid:34072377 fatcat:5rip5kvmorevvlnseablaldgcu