Logarithmic Weisfeiler-Leman Identifies All Planar Graphs [article]

Martin Grohe, Sandra Kiefer
2021 arXiv   pre-print
The Weisfeiler-Leman (WL) algorithm is a well-known combinatorial procedure for detecting symmetries in graphs and it is widely used in graph-isomorphism tests. It proceeds by iteratively refining a colouring of vertex tuples. The number of iterations needed to obtain the final output is crucial for the parallelisability of the algorithm. We show that there is a constant k such that every planar graph can be identified (that is, distinguished from every non-isomorphic graph) by the
more » ... WL algorithm within a logarithmic number of iterations. This generalises a result due to Verbitsky (STACS 2007), who proved the same for 3-connected planar graphs. The number of iterations needed by the k-dimensional WL algorithm to identify a graph corresponds to the quantifier depth of a sentence that defines the graph in the (k+1)-variable fragment C^k+1 of first-order logic with counting quantifiers. Thus, our result implies that every planar graph is definable with a C^k+1-sentence of logarithmic quantifier depth.
arXiv:2106.16218v1 fatcat:pewgcuhr3je27ph5s3yaudckt4