Universal and targeted pre-kindergarten programmes: a comparison of classroom characteristics and child outcomes

Aryn M. Dotterer, Margaret Burchinal, Donna Bryant, Diane Early, Robert C. Pianta
2013 Early Child Development and Care  
This study compared universal (available to all children) and targeted (offered only to children with specific risk factors) Pre-Kindergarten programs. Results showed that two aspects of structural quality (e.g., hours per day and teacher education) were higher in universal programs, but process quality (e.g., child interactions and feedback) was higher in targeted programs. Children's achievement was not different across programs.
doi:10.1080/03004430.2012.698388 fatcat:howdgbreh5asnpralgqfmzniwm