Pathogenesis of nitrofen-induced congenital diaphragmatic hernia in fetal rats

Douglas W. Allan, John J. Greer
1997 Journal of applied physiology  
of nitrofen-induced congenital diaphragmatic hernia in fetal rats. J. Appl. Physiol. 83(2): 338-347, 1997.-Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a developmental anomaly characterized by the malformation of the diaphragm and impaired lung development. In the present study, we tested several hypotheses regarding the pathogenesis of CDH, including those suggesting that the primary defect is due to abnormal 1) lung development, 2) phrenic nerve formation, 3) developmental processes underlying
more » ... phragmatic myotube formation, 4) pleuroperitoneal canal closure, or 5) formation of the primordial diaphragm within the pleuroperitoneal fold. The 2,4-dichloro-phenyl-p-nitrophenyl ether (nitrofen)-induced CDH rat model was used for this study. The following parameters were compared between normal and herniated fetal rats at various stages of development: 1) weight, protein, and DNA content of lungs; 2) phrenic nerve diameter, axonal number, and motoneuron distribution; 3) formation of the phrenic nerve intramuscular branching pattern and diaphragmatic myotube formation; and 4) formation of the precursor of the diaphragmatic musculature, the pleuroperitoneal fold. We demonstrated that previously proposed theories regarding the primary role of the lung, phrenic nerve, myotube formation, and the closure of pleuroperitoneal canal in the pathogenesis of CDH are incorrect. Rather, the primary defect associated with CDH, at least in the nitrofen rat model, occurs at the earliest stage of diaphragm development, the formation of the pleuroperitoneal fold.
doi:10.1152/jappl.1997.83.2.338 pmid:9262424 fatcat:mdtrey7qnbdlhn3u4zfstak6xe