Bacterial diversity and lipid biomarkers in sea ice and sinking particulate organic material during the melt season in the Canadian Arctic

Rémi Amiraux, Jean-François Rontani, Fabrice Armougom, Eléonore Frouin, Marcel Babin, Lise Artigue, Patricia Bonin
2021 Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene  
The estimation of important carbon fluxes in a changing Arctic environment remains a challenge, one that could benefit from the development of biomarkers that distinguish between sympagic (ice-associated) and pelagic organic material. Products of 10S-DOX-like lipoxygenase and fatty acid cis-trans isomerase (CTI) activity of bacteria attached to sympagic particulate organic matter (POM) were proposed previously as potential biomarkers of the contribution of sympagic biota to carbon fluxes to the
more » ... arbon fluxes to the seafloor. To date, neither the bacteria involved in such enzymatic activities nor the detection of these potential biomarkers at their presumed source (i.e., sea ice) has been investigated. Here, we determined and compared the diversity of prokaryotic communities (based on operational taxonomic units) attached to sea ice POM and under-ice sinking particles during an early stage of ice melt (brine drainage) in Baffin Bay (Canadian Arctic). Based on a time series of biodiversity analyses and the quantification of lipid tracers of these two bacterial enzymatic activities, we suggest that CTI-active bacteria, exposed to hypersaline stress, are attached to algal POM just above bottom sea ice and released into the water column following brine drainage. In contrast, bacteria attached to sinking particles and exhibiting 10S-DOX-like lipoxygenase activity are suggested to come from the bottommost layer of sea ice, where they may play a role in the detoxification of algae-produce free fatty acids. These results provide a refined view of the potential use of products of CTI activity as specific biomarkers of sympagic organic matter.
doi:10.1525/elementa.2019.040 fatcat:wx3axi5uuzclfo6vxstwlgh5hm