Hemozoin-induced activation of human monocytes toward M2-like phenotype is partially reversed by antimalarial drugs-chloroquine and artemisinin

Deepali Bobade, Ashwin V. Khandare, Mangesh Deval, Padma Shastry, Prakash Deshpande
2018 MicrobiologyOpen  
Plasmodium falciparum malaria is the most severe form of malaria with several complications. The malaria pigment-hemozoin (Hz) is associated with severe anemia, cytokine dysfunction, and immunosuppression, thus making it an interesting target for developing new strategies for antimalarial therapy. Monocytes (MO) in circulation actively ingest Hz released by Plasmodium parasites and secrete pro-and antiinflammatory cytokines. M1 and M2 types represent the two major forms of MO/ macrophages (MQ)
more » ... ith distinct phenotypes and opposing functions. Imbalance in the polarization of these types is reported in many infectious diseases. Though the association of Hz with immunosuppression is well documented, its role in activation of MO in context of M1/M2 phenotypes remains to be addressed. We report here that natural Hz drives human MO toward M2-like phenotype as evidenced by the expression of M2 signature markers. Hz-fed MO showed elevated transcript and secreted level of IL-10, CCL17, CCL1, expression of mannose-binding lectin receptor (CD206), and arginase activity. Hz attenuated HLA-DR expression, nitric oxide, and reactive oxygen species production, which are the features of M1 phenotype. Our data also implicate the involvement of p38 MAPK, PI3K/AKT, and NF-κB signaling pathways in skewing of Hz-fed MO toward M2-like type and suppression of mitogenstimulated lymphocyte proliferation. Importantly, antimalarial drugs-chloroquine and artemisinin-partially reversed activation of Hz-induced MO toward M2-like phenotype. Considering the limitations in the current therapeutic options for malaria, we propose that these drugs may be re-examined for their potential as immunomodulators and candidates for adjunctive treatment in malaria. K E Y W O R D S artemisinin, chloroquine, hemozoin, M2 monocytes, malaria S U PP O RTI N G I N FO R M ATI O N Additional supporting information may be found online in the Supporting Information section at the end of the article. How to cite this article: Bobade D, Khandare AV, Deval M, Shastry P, Deshpande P. Hemozoin-induced activation of human monocytes toward M2-like phenotype is partially reversed by antimalarial drugs-chloroquine and artemisinin. MicrobiologyOpen. 2019;8:e651. https://doi.
doi:10.1002/mbo3.651 pmid:29877619 fatcat:swicaqydfjc6rgrizp5jtbl5gm