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Fred Dretske motivates his denial of epistemic closure by way of the thought that the warrant for the premises of a valid argument need not transfer (or 'transmit') to the argument's conclusion. The failure-of-transfer-of-warrant (FTW) strategy has also been used by advocates of epistemic closure as a foil to Michael McKinsey's argument against the compatibility of first person authority and semantic externalism, and also to illuminate, more generally, why certain valid arguments appeardoi:10.15388/problemos.2018.0.0.11993 fatcat:567dihcz7bhj5gyt2tqnqmzjxq