Experimental Investigation of Adhesion Failure between Waterproof Coatings and Terrace Tiles Under Usage Loads
This paper analyses the mechanism of the loss of functional properties of water-impermeable products used under ceramic tiles bonded with adhesives. Recorded damages were caused by selected ageing factors and were measured by the loss of adhesion of individual layers of the set. The analyzed phenomenon is found mainly on terraces and balconies located in a mid-European transitional climate, i.e., exposed to temperatures passing through 0 °C for three seasons a year. The tests reflected the
... reflected the action of three main functional factors, i.e., temperatures, water and freeze/thaw cycles. Tested waterproof coatings were grouped into three types, i.e., dispersion, cementitious and reaction resin-based products. Research kits consisted of liquid-applied water-impermeable products laid on a concrete substrate, adhesives and tiles. Comparing the effects of the action of the above-mentioned ageing factors revealed that water has the greatest impact on the reduction of the tensile adhesion strength of such sets. The adhesion of waterproof coatings to the concrete substrate showed higher values than the adhesion between the waterproof coating and the tile adhesive layers, regardless of the coating material. Both for samples not exposed to ageing factors, and for those exposed to such impacts, failure usually occurred in the adhesive layer or between the tile adhesive and the waterproof coating, without damaging the waterproof layer. The loss of adhesion of finishing layers to the substrate was not accompanied by a loss of tightness of the waterproof coating. The impact of negative water ageing was particularly destructive on the adhesion of cement-based tile adhesives to waterproof coatings made of polymer with a water dispersion of absorbability above 7% (V/V). There was no correlation among the results of adhesion of the finishing layers to the waterproofing layer after the action of the three ageing factors, i.e., water contact, elevated temperature and freeze/thaw cycles.