Evidence for the Existence of a Non-catalytic Modifier Site of Peptide Hydrolysis by the 20 S Proteasome
Journal of Biological Chemistry
The 20 S proteasome is an endoprotease complex that preferentially cleaves peptides C-terminal of hydrophobic, basic, and acidic residues. Recently, we showed that these specific activities, classified as chymotrypsin-like, trypsin-like, and peptidylglutamyl peptide-hydrolyzing (PGPH) activity, are differently affected by Ritonavir, an inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus-1 protease. Ritonavir competitively inhibited the chymotrypsin-like activity, whereas the trypsin-like activity was
... ke activity was enhanced. Here we demonstrate that the Ritonavir-mediated up-regulation of the trypsin-like activity is not affected by specific active site inhibitors of the chymotrypsin-like and PGPH activity. Moreover, we show that the mutual regulation of chymotrypsin-like and PGPH activities by their substrates as described previously by a "cyclical bite-chew" model is not affected by selective inhibitors of the respective active sites. These data challenge the bite-chew model and suggest that effectors of proteasome activity can act by binding to non-catalytic sites. Accordingly, we propose a kinetic "two-site modifier" model that assumes that the substrate (or effector) may bind to an active site as well as to a second noncatalytic modifier site. This model appears to be valid as it describes the complex kinetic effects of Ritonavir very well. Since Ritonavir partially inhibits major histocompatibility complex class I restricted antigen presentation, the postulated modifier site may be required to coordinate the active centers of the proteasome for the production of class I peptide ligands.