On the Lexicographic Description of the Preposition Putyom in Modern Discourse
К ВОПРОСУ О ЛЕКСИКОГРАФИЧЕСКОМ ОПИСАНИИ ПРЕДЛОГА ПУТЁМ В СОВРЕМЕННЫХ ДИСКУРСАХ
This article analyzes the system of meanings of the preposition putyom in modern discourse, describes the features of the semantic composition in each meaning, traces semantic links of the selected meanings with the productive name and provides their lexicographic description. The analyzed material included 609 documents of the main corpus of the Russian National Corpus for 2009–2019. The search was performed on a user subcorpus of 6,555 documents which amounted to 13,596,479 words. The complex
... words. The complex study of 330 usage samples of the preposition putyom by means of contextual and component analyses has revealed that 167 of them were substantive, 13 adverbial and 150 prepositional ones. The lexicographic identifiers used were as follows: 1) recurrent links with the context, determining the lexico-semantic valence of the preposition putyom; 2) grammatical valence, implemented in specific syntactic links; 3) the possibility of lexical and grammatical replacement of constructions with the preposition putyom by an adverbial participle and a noun in the instrumental case; 4) possible partial synonymy relations; 5) data from lexicographic sources. The range of partial synonyms was established in accordance with the definitions in explanatory dictionaries. The analysis has shown seven meanings of the preposition putyom,grammarticalized in varying degrees, with differentiable semantic and compatibility features. Characteristic valences as well as semantic functions have been determined for each meaning and a dictionary entry proposed. It has been established that the "left" component of the preposition putyom in any implementation is a verb form or a verbal noun with procedural or productive semantics, while the "right" one is a verbal noun with procedural or effective semantics. The polysemy of the preposition putyom is predetermined by a change in hierarchy when contextual conditions change. All the meanings of the preposition putyom have a common motivating base, i.e. the 6th meaning of the noun put' (way). The polysemy of the preposition putyom is caused by the initial semantic potential of the motivating meaning. The preposition putyom is motivated by both explicit and implicit semes of the meaning-generating noun put' and in implication inherits the semes of its primary meaning. In all the meanings it retains this "mode of action" inherited from the motivating meaning of the noun put'. In six of seven meanings, it enters into a partial synonymy only with derivative prepositions of the genitive and dative cases and is semantically identified in these relations. The partial nature of synonymy indicates the insufficiency of a synonymous definition and requires a descriptive component inclusion.