A Survey of Active Learning for Text Classification using Deep Neural Networks [article]

Christopher Schröder, Andreas Niekler
2020 arXiv   pre-print
Natural language processing (NLP) and neural networks (NNs) have both undergone significant changes in recent years. For active learning (AL) purposes, NNs are, however, less commonly used -- despite their current popularity. By using the superior text classification performance of NNs for AL, we can either increase a model's performance using the same amount of data or reduce the data and therefore the required annotation efforts while keeping the same performance. We review AL for text
more » ... ication using deep neural networks (DNNs) and elaborate on two main causes which used to hinder the adoption: (a) the inability of NNs to provide reliable uncertainty estimates, on which the most commonly used query strategies rely, and (b) the challenge of training DNNs on small data. To investigate the former, we construct a taxonomy of query strategies, which distinguishes between data-based, model-based, and prediction-based instance selection, and investigate the prevalence of these classes in recent research. Moreover, we review recent NN-based advances in NLP like word embeddings or language models in the context of (D)NNs, survey the current state-of-the-art at the intersection of AL, text classification, and DNNs and relate recent advances in NLP to AL. Finally, we analyze recent work in AL for text classification, connect the respective query strategies to the taxonomy, and outline commonalities and shortcomings. As a result, we highlight gaps in current research and present open research questions.
arXiv:2008.07267v1 fatcat:joainuwblzbaplbls54tq4do3u