The Dynamics of daily life; a grassroots perspective on resilience and resistance in the empowerment of the Wapemba of Zanzibar
This manuscript has been reproduced from the microfilm mastar. UMI films the text directly from the otiginal or copy submitted. Thus, some thesis and dissertation copies are in typewriter face, while others may be from any type of cornputer pn'nter. The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. Broken or indistinct print, colored or poor quality illustrations and photographs, print bleedthrough, substandard margins, and improper alignment can adversely
... ect reproduction. In the unlikely event that the author did not rend UMI a cornplete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if unauthorized copyright material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion. Oversize materials (e.g., maps, drawings, charts) are reproduced by sectiming the original, beginning at the upper left-hand corner and continuing from left to right in equal sections with small overlaps. Abstract This thesis breaks away fiom the dominant paradigm in development studies to explore human developmentincluding social, cultural and spiritual aspectsexperienced in the daily lives of the Wapemba of Zanzibar. In Pemba, where ingredients such as political representation, economic and industrial development are missing, the people experience development as an indigenous process, initiated from within the community through means which are intrinsic to their shared culture. By realising their own gains, the people of Pemba achieve a sense of empowerment which is argued to be the most fundamentai aspect of development. Presented through the stories of Wapemba, the research challenges traditional notions of power and reveals the links between everyday foms of resistance and grassroots development. The resilience, determination and solidaiity evident among the Wapemba is fuelled by a sense of injustice and contnbutes to their strength, while their culture provides the foundation for al1 that they achieve. 1 am deeply grateful to Nunu, Ghanime, hiza, Fatuma, Hadija and al1 the other people of Pembeni for inviting me into their village and homes and for treating me as one of their own. 1 will always feel fortunate for having come to know the people of Pembeni who have shown me some of the most beautifid and fundamental aspects of life. I'm gratefùl to Fiona Mackenzie for the role she played in equipping me with the skills to cany out this research and for always expecting the highest standards. 1 extend a big thank you to Melissa Follen and Matt Charron for their help in submitting the thesis from Uganda and to each of them for their very dear fnendship which is always a shining (white) light. For believing in me and for being a strong and steady pillar in my Iife, I am deeply gratefbl to my family. To my parents, my sister and everyone else in our family who have taught me so much, been patient and loving throughout the long stmggle to finish this thesis and who have brought me to where I am todsy -1 love you and thank you. It is impossible to name the countless people (family, fiiends, University contacts and acquaintances) who have been variously involved in this research process, through being supportive and understanding both in living overseas and in returning home. To my wonderful fiends who know al1 about "Tyrone " (and are relieved that he has finally moved fkom my bedroom to the library) who cheered me on, continually offering invaluable perspective and reason (not to mention walks, ice-cream, phone calls, yoga, the occasional well-earned pint, Gatineau getaways, etc.). To al1 of the people who have offered their support and encouragement throughout the research process -Thank you.